Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Installation and tuning of the direct focus antenna to the C-band, Yamal 401

Installation and tuning of the direct focus antenna to the C-band, Yamal 401

Television, radio broadcasting and Internet from satellites is carried out in two main ranges - C (3500-4200 Mhz) and Ku (10700-12750 Mhz). Most antennas around the world are tuned to the Ku band. This is due to the fact that most satellites around the world broadcast in the Ku band. In the C-band, mostly Russian satellites broadcast such as Yamal (49'E, 90'E), Express-AM5 (140 E), ABS-2 (75'E). Antennas for receiving and C-band transmissions are large, therefore this range is less popular. For example, to receive the Ku band signal from the Yamal 401 90.0 ° E satellite, you can use a satellite antenna with a diameter of 0.9 - 1.2 meters, and to receive the C band, from the same satellite, it is desirable to use an antenna of at least 1.5, and preferably 1.8 - 2.0 meters However, the signal reception quality in the C-band is less dependent on the impact of meteorological conditions than in the Ku band. For example, Ku band reception is sharply degraded due to snow-covered antenna surfaces, clouds, or rain. At the same time, reception in the C-band is possible even on a fully snow-covered antenna, without degrading the image quality.

Direct Focus Antenna

For receiving C-band signals, direct focus satellite antennas are mainly used, the diameters of which can be from 1.5 m to 3.7 m For direct focus antennas, the “mirror” has a parabolic shape. Because of this, the effect of a “direct beam” is achieved when the entire spectrum of radio waves incident on the mirror is reflected in the converter (see the figure below).

Focus lenses have their pros and cons. Since the satellite antenna converter is located in the middle, at the intersection of radio waves, it obscures the center of the antenna. Because of this, not all waves enter the converter. Because of this, it was necessary to increase the coverage area by 1.5-2 times and slightly increase the size of the emitter. Size solves another big question - the quality of reception, which offset antennas cannot boast of. The shape of the bend plays an important role: almost 90% of the area is used to collect and reflect the rays, while offset - only 70%.
The main disadvantage of the direct focus dish is its location. When setting, the degree from the horizon is about 15-20% (for comparison, the offset satellite dish can generally stand upright or at most 5-7%). The slope contributes to the fact that all snow, water, dirt and leaves constantly settle on the reflector, thereby making reception difficult. Such television satellite dishes are inconvenient to mount on balconies or walls of buildings. To do this, I would have to make a long remote bracket, which is very not convenient.

C-Band Converters

The converter (or LNB - Low Noise Block) is designed to convert the frequency of the C band (3.5 - 4.2 GHz) to an intermediate frequency of 900-2150 MHz for transmission with the least loss on the coaxial cable to the satellite receiver.


  • Input frequency range: 3.7-4.2 GHz.
  • The output frequency range is 950-1750 MHz.
  • The frequency of the local oscillator 5150 MHz.
  • Noise figure 17 K. Gain 65dB (Typ.).
  • Control signals [V] 13 V.
  • Control signals [H] 18 V.

The local oscillator frequency for the C-band is set to 5150 MHz. For the C-band, 22 kHz is not necessary. Therefore, it’s absolutely all the same whether this signal will be or not.

Polarization of converters

In addition to the frequency spectrum (range), the converters differ in the type of polarization of the signal. Moreover, in one converter two types of polarization can be present at once.

Here are two main types of converters:
1. Linear universal satellite converter (Universal) - in this type of converter there are two types of polarization: Linear Horizontal (H - Horisontal).
Linear vertical (V - Vertical).

2. Circular satellite converter (Circular) - in this type of converter there are also two types of polarization:
Circular Right (R - Right).
Circular left (L - Leftl).

The depolarizer allows you to convert the circular polarization of the signal from the satellite to linear, which the converter can take with greater efficiency. It is installed in linear polarization converters. Most often, a depolarizer is a dielectric plate in a converter waveguide.

The material of the depolarizer is fluoroplastic, or, most often, fiberglass. You can use plates of light fiberglass, 6 mm thick, 35 mm wide, length - according to the internal size of the irradiator pipe. It is installed after searching and capturing the signal from the satellite into the irradiator tube at a position of 45 ° relative to the receiving probe (pin) in the head. If there are grooves in the waveguide for the head, a depolarizer is inserted into them. These are not the only possible materials and the form of depolarizers, but it is with such depolarizers that the most stable results and the least number of adjustments.

If after installing the depolarizer the signal level has disappeared, or its level has dropped significantly - change the position of the depolarizer by 90 °, or change the polarization of the transponders in the tuner settings, vertical to horizontal and vice versa.
Some models of C-band converters allow you to increase the signal level with a non-standard position of the depolarizer, namely + 90 ° relative to the grooves. It is determined in a practical way.

Tuning the direct focus antenna to the Yamal satellite 401 (201), 90 ° E

Next, we will look at how to install and configure a 1.8 m straight-focus segmented satellite antenna to receive a signal from the Yamal satellite - 401, 90E (90 ° East). To receive a signal from the Yamal-201 satellite (90 ° East), a depolarizer plate, as described above, must be inserted into the converter.
We select the installation location conditionally in such a way that the direction to the satellite — Novosibirsk — is a suitable place. The process of tuning the antenna in the C-band is not significantly different from tuning in the KU-band. To determine the coordinates of the direction to the satellite, we need to use the online calculator or another service to determine the elevation and azimuth.
First you need to find out the geographical coordinates of your location, the name of the satellite.

In our case, Novosibirsk:

Coordinates of Novosibirsk in decimal degrees
Latitude 55.0415
Longitude 82.9346

Substitute in the online calculator and calculate
elevation angle: 26.9 °
bearing: 171.4 °

Next, we measure the azimuth using a compass, and the elevation angle using the goniometer as shown in the figure and proceed to configure the antenna.
You can also navigate alongside standing antennas tuned to the same satellite. In the event that there are no antennas nearby, and you do not have a sufficiently accurate compass and goniometer, you can navigate in the search by the sun, whose position coincides with the position of the satellite at about 12 noon.

Search and capture of a signal from a satellite is carried out by the most powerful transponder. In the tuner menu, the converter local oscillator frequency is set to 5 150 MHz. The data of the strongest transponder is set. On Yamal, 90 ° E is the Gazkomovsky package.

Table No. 1. Satellite Transponder Parameters:
SatelliteTransponderChannel for visual inspection
Yamal 4013645 L 28000NTV (+ 7h), Match !, Shopping Live
3969 L 22222TNT4 (+ 7h), Leomax 24
3674 L 17500Spas, Radost Moya

The broadcast parameters in the table are relevant at the time of writing and may change over time, so stay tuned for changes in the parameters in the table of frequencies and transponders. The setting is made according to the menu item "Signal strength" (Scan, etc.). Modern receivers usually have 2 measurement scales.
First scale - "Level (Signal)" - shows the level of the inverter at the tuner input.
Second - "Quality" - shows the level of the useful signal with the given parameters (frequency, speed and FEC).
The level on the first scale includes both a useful signal from the satellite, and head noises, broadcast noises, the noise of all devices on the way from the head to the tuner. Most often, before connecting the head, the level is "0" and becomes greater than zero when it is connected.

The initial search is carried out on the first scale. The level on it increases as you approach the satellite. The search is carried out by scanning the sector in which the satellite is supposed to be. It should be borne in mind that obstacles, such as a tree, a sun structure, also increase the signal level on the first scale. But through them it will be impossible to receive a satellite. When the tuner picks up a signal from the satellite, a level appears on the second scale - "Quality". Further tuning is carried out on a second scale to the maximum signal, the more percent the better.
After tuning to the maximum signal, a depolarizer is inserted, its position is adjusted and proceed to Alignment. It should also be taken into account that the graduation of scales is different both on tuners of different manufacturers, and so often on different models of the same manufacturer. Therefore, it is incorrect to compare percentages of “Quality” of two different models of tuners.

Fine tuning or adjustment is carried out by adjusting the position of the irradiator tube, its rotation, the position of the depolarizer, fine-tuning the direction of the antenna itself. All manipulations are performed in a circle a couple of times until the maximum signal is reached. After that, all other transponders are scanned into the tuner. After that, level control is performed on all channels. In the case of a low level on weak transponders, the antenna is adjusted again, already according to the level of weak channels.

The scale at the end of the converter does not matter much, but simplified - if the satellite is in the south, then 0 - to the earth, the more to the east - right (by the hour) to 30, to the west, respectively, to the left to 30. I attach the irradiator with the converter to the extreme points, so that in the course of setting by turning the irradiator (for and against the hour) to find the maximum signal (changing focus).
Enjoy watching!

Tuesday, May 5, 2020


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Sunday, May 3, 2020

T.B Joshua: All came to pass - Awako on Ghana winning U20 W/Cup Read more:

- TB Joshua prophesied on the outcome of the FIFA U20 World Cup in 2009 won by Ghana - Ghanaian star Gladson Awako claimed that all of TB Joshua's predictions came to pass - The Black Starlets became the first African country to win the tournament TB Joshua also known as Temitope BalogunJoshua is a Nigerian controversial pastor of the Synagogue, Church of All Nations (SCOAN). Ghanaian footballer Gladson Awako recalls how TB Joshua was instrumental to the West African nation's triumph at the FIFA U20 World Cup in Egypt in 2009. The Black Starlets became the first African nation to win the tournament with Nigeria coming close twice on two occasions. Awako claimed that the man of God was with the team in each match of tournament en route to the final and winning the cup. Read more:

Kano govt playing politics with COVID-19, say health associations

Some health associations in the country on Saturday deplored the decision of the Kano State government to ease the total lockdown in the state without regard for the mysterious deaths in the state.
They said the governor’s action smacked of politics.
Speaking to The Nation, the President of the National Association of Resident Doctors (NARD), Dr. Aliyu Sokomba, said: “the whole dimension of COVID-19 management has been drifting gradually from medical interventions to political power play, and we are beginning to feel that the stakeholders are using this COVID-19 to settle scores, etc.
“Otherwise the lockdown in Kano was instituted in good faith. In fact, it is either the people there do not understand the nature of the disease we are dealing with or they just want to do things differently for political expediencies.
“The very first time this disease had the opportunity of spreading very much in Kano was when the lockdown was lifted – I think some days to the beginning of the fast. The government said that everybody should go to the market and shop.
“As much as I want to speak medically, I think medical stand in itself cannot be the only solution to the problem in Kano. I would have suggested that the state government synchronises and harmonises its position with the federal government on whatever they are doing to curtail the spread of this disease.
Sokomba added: “Just recently, the Kano State government was crying out that it had been abandoned. I will suggest that whatever the Governor is doing he should ensure that it is harmonised with whatever the Federal Government has put in place and provide palliatives. They don’t have to lift the curfew.
In a separate interview, the President of the Nigerian Medical Association (NMA), Dr. Francis Faduyile, said: “I think we still have a lot of confusion in Kano State because it looks as if the rate of infection has gone far beyond the process of containment and management.
“I have even heard that many of their doctors and health workers have been infected and they are not likely to be available to treat.
“I think this call for a deeper scrutiny. It seems that they may be overwhelmed in a very short while and I can tell you that this may not be the best as it is for Kano state. The rate of transmission is growing so exponentially and we really need to do a lot to be able to contain it.
“As a doctor, I tend not to look at it from a political aspect, but I know that our political leaders are not fully looking at the scientific implications of a lot of decisions and that is quite unfortunate. The surge in the number of cases is already there but we still don’t know the extent.  I can say that it is still not a good sign.”
In a phone conversation, Dr. Bassey Enya, the President of the Association of Medical Laboratory Scientists of Nigeria (AMLSN), said: “Relaxing of the lockdown becomes a conflict between politics and professional responsibility, and once there is a conflict between politics and professional responsibility, the professional responsibility should take preeminence over politics.
“What is supposed to have informed the Governor of Kano state to relax the lockdown is when they have a plateau after 14 days and they see noticeable decline in the number of confirmed cases being reported. But that has not happened. Since that has not happened, easing the lockdown becomes a political decision not a technical or professional decision.
“With the current situation, it becomes the responsibility of the state to provide food for the people; you do not relax the lock down especially now that we have not attained the peak of the outbreak.
“Some of the concerns are – first, with the easing of the lockdown will there be social distancing? The answer is no. If you go to the market you will see how people cluster there. Secondly, with the easing of the lockdown, has government provided facilities, especially water in strategic places for people to wash their hands?
The answer is still no. Thirdly, with the lockdown, has government provided face masks for everybody to wear in public places? The answer again is no.
“Since the answers are no, you can almost guess that what will happen is a resultant increase in the number of cases we are going to see in coming days in Kano state, which is not healthy for the management of this pandemic.”

BREAKING: Zamfara Emir dies in isolation

BREAKING: Zamfara Emir dies in isolation Emir of Kaura-Namoda in Zamfara State, Alhaji Mohammed Asha, is dead.

He was believed to have died of complications from COVID-19.
Zamfara Publicity Secretary for the Control and Prevention of COVID-19, Alhaji Mustafa Jafaru Kaura, sai the deceased had been in isolation at the Yariman Bakura Specialist Hospital, Gusau for three days.

Thursday, April 30, 2020


 Intelsat 11 (43W) -  Trace Sports Stars HD is now transmitted Free To Air (4185.00MHz, pol.H SR:20709 FEC:5/6 SID:7 PID:701[MPEG-4] /702 English,703 French,704 English,705 Russian). (2020-04-29 15h56)
 Astra 4A (4.8E) -  ATG Live is now transmitted Free To Air (12379.60MHz, pol.H SR:27500 FEC:3/4 SID:210 PID:4130/4131,4132). (2020-04-28 09h41)
 Astra 4A (4.8E) -  Kanal 75 is now transmitted Free To Air (12379.60MHz, pol.H SR:27500 FEC:3/4 SID:260 PID:4141/4142 English,4143 German,4144 Polish). (2020-04-28 09h41)
 Belintersat 1 (51.5E) -  Fotelka.tvCT 3 HD is now transmitted Free To Air (11290.00MHz, pol.H SR:45000 FEC:8/9 SID:52 PID:1521[MPEG-4] /1522 Czech). (2020-04-28 08h51)
 Eutelsat 7C (7E) -  Digitürk24 HD is now transmitted Free To Air (10928.00MHz, pol.H SR:30000 FEC:5/6 SID:7810 PID:2209[MPEG-4] /2727 Turkish). (2020-04-26 09h37)
 Turksat 3A (42E) -  TRT World is now transmitted Free To Air (10963.00MHz, pol.V SR:14166 FEC:5/6 SID:10605 PID:1605[MPEG-4] /1705 Turkish). (2020-04-22 08h36)
 Intelsat 34 (55.5W) -  Latina is now transmitted Free To Air (4143.00MHz, pol.H SR:5000 FEC:3/4 SID:22 PID:4112[MPEG-4] /4114 Spanish,4116). (2020-04-17 15h28)
 Hellas Sat 3 (39E) -  The Voice Bulgaria is now transmitted Free To Air (12118.00MHz, pol.H SR:30000 FEC:5/6 SID:131 PID:4101[H.265]/4102 aac Bulgarian). (2020-04-17 08h31)
 Intelsat 20 (IS-20) (68.5E) -  News 18 Tamil Nadu is now transmitted Free To Air (4034.00MHz, pol.V SR:21600 FEC:5/6 SID:961 PID:962[MPEG-4]/963 Tamil). (2020-04-15 22h49)
 Intelsat 20 (IS-20) (68.5E) -  News18 Kerala is now transmitted Free To Air (4034.00MHz, pol.V SR:21600 FEC:5/6 SID:931 PID:932[MPEG-4]/933 Malayalam). (2020-04-12 09h15)

Many Free to Air Receivers requires manual means of inputting Biss Key

    Many Free to Air Receivers requires manual means of inputting Biss Key to enable you enjoy some channels.
* How To Manually input BISS keys on Strong 4955, 4955B, 4955G & 4962i Receivers.
- Tune to the channel that
you want to open with a
biss key
- Get to the patch
by inputting F1 + 8280
on your remote control
from your screen.
- The patch menu window will pop up.
-Navigate to BISS Key patch Menu
- Scroll to the last
Key Number and Press
Green button to add
another Keyline or click “EDIT”
If you would rather edit
an existing key, Press
on “Sat” to edit the
Frequency, Symbol Rate
Your provider ID can be
“1FFF” and you can
leave your index as “00”
or “3D” or any two digits.
Ensure that The Key Data
doesn’t exceed 16
characters such as 11 11
11 33 11 11 11 33
Press SAT Key button
from the remote control
to enter the Frequency,
Symbol rate and
Polarization. Make sure it
appears as follows: Freq:
SR: Pol:SID =
Press the OK button on
your remote to save the
key data.
* Tiger star T245+ Ultra
-  Click menu-click
installation, then click
Patch – Scroll to BISS
-  Next, scroll through the
existing keys and pick
one. I will recommend
you pick the last one or
any irrelevant one.
- After that, go to blue
button Edit by clicking it,
then enter your keys on
the Key column. Don’t
forget to enter 00 on
Prov ID and Index. Then
Click (F1) Edit Biss to
enter  your frequency
and symbol Rate
- Save and After exit.
* GSky, Hellbox decoders.
Users of Gsky and hellobox
decoders don’t need to manually
enter any Biss keys at the
moment. Just download the
latest software and watch the
decoder do its magic.
You must first download
and install the latest
software for your version
of GSky decoder from
the manufacturer’s
Next, press menu on your
remote and open
“conditional “
Scroll to BISS
Once this has been
opened, press the green
button on your remote to
add a new BISS key.
Edit the keys accordingly.
* Qsat Receivers
- Firstly, press menu on
the remote control.
- Next, enter default code
which is usually “0000”
unless if changed by you,
then you can enter your
own code.
- Navigate to the Xcam set
up on your decoder. It is
usually under settings
-  However, If Xcam set up
is not available or
hidden, simply press
1512 on the remote
control and Xcam set up
will pop up automatically.
Please note that before
you press 1512, make
sure you are in the area
of your decoder where
you see things like
“Preference, AV, Ethernet
Config, PVR Config,
Multimedia setting etc.
*  Strtong products such as SRT 4669XII,
SRT 4669X, SRT 4920, SRT
4923, SRT 4922a, SRT 4950,
SRT 4950M, SRT 4950
-  press 8280 on your remote
control and a new screen
will pop up.
- However, if after
pressing, a new screen
fails to show up, you
have to activate the biss
key option first. At this
point, press 6969 on your
remote control and you
will be asked for a
password, simply press
6969 again on your
remote control. After that
press 8280 to enter the
biss key menu.
-  On the other hand, if the
biss key option has been
activated on your
decoder already, then
you don’t need to go
through such a long
process. Simply follow
this simple steps below:
– Select the channel you want
to open.
– Press 8280 on your remote
and press OK.
– The Biss Key menu will
– Enter your Key
– Press Exit to save the setting.
* AlphaBox X4 and x6 RECEIVERS
- Press the menu button on
your remote control.
- Locate the settings
- On the setting Bar, enter 2778
- The access control option will
- Click OK on the Access

-  Locate CONSTANT.CW Edit
and press OK

Installation and tuning of the direct focus antenna to the C-band, Yamal 401

Installation and tuning of the direct focus antenna to the C-band, Yamal 401 Television, radio broadcasting and Internet from sa...